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Vzz Jfzw United States Patent O COMBINATION STOP ACTION Victor I. Zuck, Kenmore, N. Y., assignor to The Rudolph Wurlitzer Company, North Tonawanda, N. Y., a corporation of Ohio Application October 12, 1949, Serial No. 120,869 6 Claims. (31. 84-1414 This invention concerns organs and more particularly concerns an electric combination stop action for setting up and changing combinations of stops in electronic organs and for changing the timbre of certain stops.
Both pipe organs and electronic organs have stops or banks of tone generators having different characteristic sounds. In playing, several stops are generally sounded simultaneously to give desired characteristics to the music played. The selection of stops may control whether the music sounds solemn, joyous, serene or vigorous, for example. Often it is desired to change the character of the music being played without interrupting the music. A super-human task would be imposed on the organist if it were necessary for him to change the stop controls one by one in a very short space of time while concurrently operating the keys and other controls of the organ. To make it possible for the organist to change the character of the music being played by actuating several stop controls concurrently without interrupting the continuity of the music, I have provided a new and improved combination setter and group of stops associated therewith in an electronic organ which may be controlled by a single movement of the organists hand or foot.
F. A. Hoschke in his Patent No. 2,015,014 has disclosed a type of tone generator in which a metallic reed vibrated by an air blast is utilized as one plate of a condenser microphone. An appropriately graduated ser1es of such reeds will provide a gamut of notes constitutlng an organ stop and the reeds may be deformed or prevoiced to produce the notes in any organ stop. I have found that it is possible to greatly expand the scope of an electronic organ utilizing vibratory reeds of the type disclosed by Hoschke by applying different potentials to a series of reeds. By this means, tones characteristic of more than one organ stop may be produced by the same bank of reeds with no greater alteration than the addition of a voltage source supplying a plurality of voltages and the provision of the proper switches and coniections to apply different potentials to a bank of ree s.
One of the most important objects of this invention is the provision of a combination setter in an electronic organ whereby any desirable number of stops may be brought into operation by throwing a single switch.
Another object of this invention is the provision of a combination setter in which combinations may be set up rapidly and flexibly.
A further object is the provision, in addition to the combination setter means, of means for altering the timbre or voice of any desired stops to produce a greater number of possible combinations without the addition of extra banks of tone producers.
Other and further objects and advantages of the present invention, as well as means for carrying out all of the objects, will be apparent upon a perusal of the following description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of an electronic organ with a combination setter drawer drawn out into operative position;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of a new and improved solenoid controlled switch;
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of a stop tablet and its ancillary parts;
Fig. 4 1s a slde elevation of a toe-operated switch for "ice duplicating or supplanting certain manual combination setter controls;
Fig. 5 is a partial schematic wiring diagram illustrating my invention; and
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 5 of a modified form of my invention.
Referring now to the drawings in greater particularity, Fig. 1 shows the console of an electronic organ embodying my invention. The console comprises a cabinet 8, a swell and great keyboard or manual 10 and a pedal clavier 12. Foot pedals 14 and 16 may control the general volume level as well as crescendo, and stop tablets 36 control which tone generators are actuated by depression of the various keys or pedals. A drawer 20, which may be slid out of the cabinet, carries a plurality of switch controls 22 which control the setter action and the stop drawing action of my invention, and toe pedals or switches 24 are provided for drawing combinations simultaneously and may duplicate or supplant some of the controls in the setter drawer 20.
Attention is now directed to Fig. 5 wherein a certain preferred embodiment of my invention is illustrated. A rectifier 26, which may be of any well known type, is provided to convert the alternating current power generally available into direct current of suitable magnitude which is applied to buses or conductors 28 and 30. A series of magnets 32 controls the connection of each stop to the keyboard as is explained in considerable detail in my application Serial No. 692,251 filed August 22, 1946, Patent No. 2,547,918, granted April 3, 1951, and entitled Electric Organ Coupler Assembly. Each of the magnets 32 is energized or de-energized by the closing or opening of a switch 31, which is actuated by the movement of one of the stop tablets 36, the latter being moved either manually or magnetically. In order to actuate the stop tablets magnetically, I have provided a new and improved electromagnetic structure including electromagnets 38 and 40. The structure including the electromagnets 38, 40 is shown in Fig. 3. A stop tablet 36 is mounted at one end of an essentially anchorshaped armature 42 having a cross arm 44. The armature is pivoted adjacent its opposite end at 46 to a frame 48 which may be mounted by any desirable means such as screws to the frame 50 of the organ. Spring switch arms 52 and 54 having insulated projections 56 and 58, respectively, which are engaged by the opposite ends of the cross arm 44, are closed alternately by engagement with either end of the cross arm. A looped spring 60 is connected between the end of the armature 42 adjacent the pivot 46 and a fixed point on a portion of the frame 48 to urge the armature either way from the center position to maintain whichever switch is closed in closed position. Setscrews 62 and 64 are provided to abut against the armature and adjustably determine the extent of its movement. The armature may be moved mechanically by moving the stop tablet 36 or may be moved magnetically by actuating either of the magnets 38, 40 in a manner to be described later.
Referring again to Fig. 5 and taking the magnets 38, 40 of the Major Bass stop tablet as exemplars, conductors 66 and 68 lead from the magnets 38, 40 to the contacts 501 and 502 of a single pole double throw switch 70. The adoption of the numerals in the 500 series has been made in order to clarify the wiring diagram by making it possible to omit the many conductors which would otherwise constitute a hopeless maze. Corresponding numbers in the 500 series are to be understood as connected together, although the actual wires have been omitted except in the connections actually discussed where the wires have been included to facilitate tracing of the circuit. The switch 70 is connected by a conductor 72 with one of the fixed plural contacts of a normally open relay 74. The single movable contact 76 of this relay contacts all of the fixed plural contacts when the relay is actuated and is connected by a conductor 78 to another conductor 80, which is in turn connected to the bus 30. The relay 74 is connected by conductors 82 and 84 to the bus 28. The relay 74 is also connected through conductors 86, S8 and to a 194, and through it to conductor 96 which is connected to bus 30. A parallel branch circuit 98 connects a holding relay magnet 100 across the buses 28 and 30. A circuit is thus established through the branch circuit 98, the. relay 100, relay contact 102 and break push button 94 which maintains therelay 100 in closed positionwith relay 74 actuated. A pilot light 104 is also connected across the buses by means of branch circuit 98, break push button 94 andconductor 96 withxthe addition of relay contact106.
By the foregoing means, a potential is applied. from the busline 30 through conductors 80" and 78 to the movable contact 76 of relay 74 and1hence to all of the switches.70 and through these switches to'any one of the pairs of contactssuch as 501, 502.0r 503, 504 etc. If the switch 70 is connected to contact 502, as illustrated, theLmagnet 40 will be energized to throw stop. tablet 36 into active position. Switch 34 will thusbe closed to energize magnet 32' which draws the. Major Bass stop. If switch 70 had been on contact 501, the magnet 38 would have been energized to throw stop tablet 36 to inactive position (or to leave it in that position), in which case the Major Bass stop would not play.
The'movement of switches 70 is controlled manually bv moving the switch. controls 22 in the drawer 28. Each switch. control is preferably labeled with the name of the stop it controls and its positions are appropriately labeled on and oil. By suitably moving to on the switch. controls 22 and hence the switches 70 which correspond to the stops the organist desires to play and by moving. the other. switch controls to off, the organist may predetermine which stops are to play and which are. to remain silent when he closes push button 92. By providing a plurality of gangs of switches 70 and corresponding connections including. relays similar to the relay 74 and numbered 108. through 116 on the drawing, any desirable number of combinations may be preset, andeach may be actuated by a push button similar to the push button 92'. As has been indicated'by the numbers 501. through 520, the switch contacts associated' with the relay magnet 108 are connectedin parallel with the correspondingly numbered switch contacts associated with the relay 74 and with the similarly numbered connections to magnets 38 and 40. As all of themagnets and all of the switch contacts lie in straight lines, I; have omitted a few of the numbers to preclude lack of clarity in the drawings insofar aspossible. In each series the first and last numbers are given and the others may be readily interpolated. The switch contacts associated with relays 110 and 112 and those associated with'the relays 114 and 116 are alsoconnected in parallel' in a similar fashion, but the contacts to the relays 38 and 40 as Well as the relays have been omitted, as parts ofthe swelland'great stop tablet banks havebeen omitted; to reduce the drawings to a reasonable size. It may be well to emphasize at thispoint that the portions omitted. in no way detract from this disclosure, as the banks of stop tablets are substantially similar and the relays 74 and 108 through 116 are identical, and the connections are made similarly to those.indicated-that is, from right to left across the relays just enumerated.
When the organist wishes to change combinations, he may press the break push button 94 .to interrupt. the circuit through magnet 100 and through relay 74 to allow the movable contact 76 to open and break all circuits through the magnets 38, 40; Pushing another make push button 93 similar to thebutton. 92 completes circuits through another gang of switches which may be any one ofthe gangs associated with the relays 108 through 116. Theseswitches have. of course been preset to provide a combinationdifferent from that heretofore. described. The push buttons 92, 94- and. their substantial duplicates 93 may be located in the setter controlv drawer for finger tip. operation or may be incorporated in the pistons 24 for toe operation.
One of the. pistons isillustrated in Fig. 4 as a make push button. Thexpistoncomprises a shell 118 having a' lower peripheral flange 120 through which fastener members may be placed to secure the piston at a convenient angle on a slanting surface 122 on the organ cabinet 8 directlyabove the pedal clavier. The bottom aswell as the top end of the shell is skewed somewhat from-a position normal to the axis of the shell to allow thepistonto be mounted at the angle which is most convenient for tip-toe operation. A cap 124 fits over the shell 118' and has a depending peripheral flange which is skewed at the same angle as the top and bottom of 'the shell; A shaft or rod 126' is secured'to the cap 124 along the axis thereof and has a coil spring 128 disposed about it and between the cap and shell in order to urge the cap upward. The lower end of the shaft 126 is operatively connected to a flexible switch arm 130, which is moved downward into contact with a second flexible switch arm 132 upon depression of the cap 124 of the piston by the organists toe. The switch contacts 130 and 132 may supplant or duplicate the contacts shown associatedwith the push button 92.
A suitable source of 8+ is applied to one end of a voltage divider 134 and the other end of the voltage divider is grounded; Several taps are supplied on the voltage divider for applying diflerent voltages to the reeds or tone generators to vary the quality of their output. For instance, from tap 136 a conductor 138 runs to one contact 140 of a single pole double throw switch 142 operated by the uppermanual Flute stop tablet'144. When tablet 144 is depressed; contact 140" and switch arm 142 are connected. From switch 142, a conductor 146 leads to a connection with filter 148 and thence to pallet board 150' in amanner similar to and for purposes similar to those disclosed in my Patent No. 2,300,609.
The Flauto Dolce stop tablet 152 does not have astop magnet. The leads from its magnet switch 34'are connected to the stop magnet 32' associated with the Flute stop 1441 Thus when the Flauto Dolce stop tablet is depressed, the stop magnet of the Flute stop is energized, bringing the Flute pallet and reeds into play. TheFlute stop' tablet must be raised to inactive position to play the Flauto Dolceso no voltage passes through the switch 140 and conductors 154 and 146. Instead, switch 156 is connected to 158 and conductor 160' to convey voltage from tap 162' which is of a lower potential'than tap=136. The potential from 162 is applied to conductor 160, switch'166, conductor 168 andswitch 170 to conductor 146 and hence the filter and reeds in the manner described above.
Similar interconnectionis provided between the Major Bass and the Dolce Gedeckt; between the StoppedFlute and the Flauto Dolce, and between theViola andDulciana in the great. organ, and between the Viola and Dulciana in. the swell organ, the higher'potential being applied to'the first named of each pair and the lowerpotential to the second. Similar substitutes of potential may be made to changes of voices of stops otherthan those named. It is somewhat of a matter of choice how these should be connected, and a detailcd'sliowing is not necessary as the. underlying principle hasbeen clearly disclosed;
A crescendo device is disclosedat 172, cylindrical cam with a helical lift which successively closes a plurality ofswitches. The first switch completes the circuitbetween' the buses28and 30 throughta'pilot light174 so that the organist will' know at all; times when he is depressing: the pedal actuating thecrcscendo; Successive switches actuate stop magnets 32 to bring successive stops into play as desired. The order of? stops is preferably'from the less loud 'to the comparativelys'louder, and'the exact connection is a matter of choice.- The first fewswitches have been shown connected in thecircuit, but others have been omitted to maintain. clarity in" the drawings. When no pressureis exertedon theicrescendo pedal, the crescendo device returns to its'initial position and-the various switches are opened. The'openingiof the last switch of course extinguishes'the pilot light andthe operator knows that he is no longerutilizin'g'the crescendo to any degree.
In the arrangement shown in Fig; 6, the stop' tab'lets are substantially the same as those shown in Fig; 5, but different parts of. the banks of tablets have been broken away for clarity of illustration. Insofar as the parts shownin this figure. are substantially identical. with those shown in Fig. 5, the same numbers-are usediand the-description of these parts'isomitted. or kept to a minimum. Combinations are set-up. in the embodiment disclosed in this figure by depressing the stop tablets 36 of the desired stops, pressing aswitch button 176. thatcontrols the combination in which the organist desires to register.the stops, and then pressing a setter button 178 to energizethe solenoids 180 and effect the registration. To destroy acombination, it is only necessary to. raise the stop tablets, press the combination button 176"and then press the and. comprises a setter button 178 to energize the solenoids 182 that etfect the unreg'istration.
The solenoids 180 and 152 are situated in pairs and have a common substantially anchor-shaped armature 184 as illustrated in Fig. 2. The armature has a cross arm 186 near one end which aids in establishing a magnetic path to pull it in either direction and is pivoted near its opposite end as at 188 on a frame190 secured to the frame 50 of the organ. A compression spring 192 is connected between the extremity of the armature next to the pivot and a fixed point on the frame 190 to urge the armature toward either side away from a dead center position. The other end of the armature carries an insulated nose 194 which engages either of a pair of flexible switch arms 196 and 198 depending upon which of the magnets 180 and 182 has been energized last. When the switch arms are engaged by the insulated nose 194, they are flexed to close switches 200 or 202. When the nose 194 closes switch 200, registration takes place and when the nose closes switch 202, the stop is unregistered. Switch 200 closes the circuit through magnet 38 seen in Fig. 6 and switch 202 closes the circuit through the magnet 40 in the same figure. These magnets in turn raise or lower the stop tablet 36, as has been previously discussed, toopen and close the switches controlled thereby.
To illustrate the operation of the modification disclosed in Fig. 6, attention is directed to the Stopped Flute associated with the swell keyboard. The stop is put into combination by depressing its stop tablet 36 and then pressing the aforementioned switch and setter buttons 176 and 178. Depressing the stop tablet 36 closes the switch 204 associated with it. A circuit is thus completed through the switch 204 and magnet 32 between the buses 28, 30. Concurrently, a circuit is established through conductor 206 to solenoid 180, and from there through conductor 208 to a fixed contact of a relay 210. When relay 210 is energized, the circuit is completed through conductors 212 and 214 to the bus 28. Relay 210 is energized by pressing the setter button 178 to establish a circuit from the bus 30 through conductor 216 through relays 218 and 220, which causes relay 218 to open and 220 to close, and from there through conductor 222 and conductor 214 to bus 28. The closing of relay 220 completes a circuit through conductors 214, 222 and 22 4, relay 210, conductor 226 and switch 228 to bus 30. Releasing button 178 interrupts the circuit through conductor 216, allowing the relay 218 to assume its normally closed position and the relay 220 to resume its normally open position. This closes a circuit from the bus 28 through the conductors 214, 222, and 230, relay 232, conductor 226 and switch 228 to bus 30. Relay 232 is thus held closed as long as switch 228 is closed.
The energization of solenoid 180 moves the armature 184 to close the switch 200, as schematically indicated in Fig. 6, and the armature stays in this position with the switch 200 closed due to the action of the compression spring 192 regardless of subsequent de-energization of the solenoid 180 until such time as the solenoid 182 may be energized. A circuit thus remains established from the bus 30 through a conductor 234 to the movable contacts 236 of relay 232. If the relay 232 is energized, the circuit is then continued through a conductor 238, through the switch 200, through a conductor 240, and through relay 38 to the bus 28. The registration of the Stopped Flute in the combination is now complete.
Thereafter, whenever the button 176 is pressed, a circuit is closed from bus 30, through switch 228, through conductor 226, through relay 232, conductor 230, the contacts of the normally closed relay 218, conductor 222 and conductor 214 to the bus 28. Relay 232 is thus actuated and the circuit described in the foregoing paragraph is completed to energize magnet 38, which in turn draws the stop tablet 36 into on position to close switch 204 and energize magnet 32 to connect the Stopped Flute to the swell manual.
It should be noted that a plurality of buttons similar to the button 176, a plurality of fixed contacts associated with the relays 218, 220, 210 and 232, duplication of the relays 210 and 232, and a number of solenoid structures 180, 182 are provided so that more than one stop may be put into any combination and a number of combinations may be set up. I have disclosed the connections for one illustration of my invention and as the remainder of the connections may be made by any skilled mechanic,
' 6 I have omitted them in order to prevent the drawings from becoming an impenetrable maze.
Should it be desired to eliminate the Stopped Flute from the combination, its stop tablet 36 is raised and the button 178 is pushed. Any other tablets which may be in the combination are left depressed. A circuit is thus established from bus 30, through a switch 242 and a conductor 244 to solenoid 182, and from there through a conductor 246 to one of the fixed contacts associated with one of the relays 210. The circuit is completed by depressing button 178, which closes the circuit from bus 30 through conductor 216 to the coils of the relays 218 and 220 to open the former and close the latter, and back through conductors 222 and 214 to bus 23. The closing of relay 220 completes a circuit from the bus 28 through conductors 214, 222 and 224, to the coils of relays 210, returning through conductor 226 and switch 228, which has been closed by depressing button 176, to the bus 30. The closing of relays 210 completes the circuit previously partly established through solenoid 182 to the movable contact 248 and from thence through conductors 212 and 214 to the bus 28. Solenoid 182 is thus energized and the armature 184 is drawn toward it to close the switch 202. A circuit is thereby completed from the bus 30 through conductor 234, the contacts of relay 232, conductor 238, and switch 202 to a conductor 250, which in turn leads through the magnet 40 to bus 28. Due to the spring 192 acting on the armature 184, the switch 202 will remain closed indefinitely and depression of the combination button 176 will energize the magnet 40 which tends to remove the stop from play rather than the magnet 38 which, as previously described, would draw the stop into play.
Any other stop may be removed from combination by the same process, and it may be seen that an entire combina-tion may be erased by first pressing the button 176 to depress the stop tablets in the combination, secondly, raising the tablets manually, and third, press-ing the buttons 176 and 17 8 simultaneously. This operation will be recognized to be the reverse of the combination setting operation. The intensity change and crescendo connections in Fig. '6 are identical with those in Fig. 5 and to aid in clarity of the drawings,.the connections have not been shown.
A locking bar 252 is shown associated with the push button 176 and similar push buttons and may be of any well known type in which a pressed button is held in depressed position until it is released by the pressing of any other button. By this means, it is possible for the organist to ascertain at a glance which combination he is using, although such structure is not absolutely necessary as he may tell by looking at the stop tablets. As one combination is released by the pressing of another switch, it is possible to change combinations instantly and if it is desired to release a combination without substituting another, it is possible to do so by pushing an additional button 254 which is not associated with any switches.
It is apparent that I have herein presented a combination stop action for electronic organs which makes it possible to pre-select a plurality of stop combinations and bring any of the combinations into operation by the actuation of a single switch. Although two particular embodiments of this stop action have been shown and described, it is to be understood that my invention is not to be limited thereto, but is to be limited only by the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
1. In an electric organ, a plurality of keys, a plurality of tone generators arranged in a plurality of stops, a plurality of stop controls arranged in a plurality of organ stops and interconnected with said tone generators for selectively rendering said tone generators effective to play in response to operation of said keys, a plurality of electromagnets operably connected to said stop controls for operating the same, means including a plurality of stop switches interconnected with said electrom'agnets for controlling the operation of said electromagnets, a plurality of pairs of electromagnets connected to said stop switches for controlling the operation of said stop switches in opposite directions, a plurality of groups of relay means arranged in a plurality of organ stops and interconnected with said pairs of electromagnets for operating said pairs of electromagnets, means for presetting each group of said relay means to operate a preselected group of pairs of group of relay means, and means interconnecting each said control member with a corresponding group of relay means in different stops for concurrently operating said relay means in response to movement of a corresponding control member concurrently to operate the stop controls in a plurality of stops.
2. The combination as set forth in claim 1 wherein each relay means comprises a relay having a first contact cooperable with a plurality of second contacts, and the means for presetting the relay means to operate a preselected group of pairs of electromagnets comprises a plurality of manually presettable switches interconnecting said second contacts and said pairs of electromagnets.
3. The combination set forth in claim 1 wherein the relay means comprises a plurality of pairs of solenoids and double throw switches presettable to either of two positions for operating one of each pair of electromagnets, and the means for presetting the relay means includes a plurality of relays operable in conjunction with said stop switches, said stop switches being provided with manually operable controls.
4. In an electronic organ, a plurality of keys, a plurality of tone generators arranged in a plurality of stops, a plurality of stop controls for selectively rendering said tone generators effective to play in response to operation of said keys, a plurality of electromagnets for operating said stop controls, a plurality of stop switches interconnected with said electromagnets for controlling said electromagnets, a plurality of pairs of electromagnets for operating said stop switches in opposite directions, relay means interconnected with said pairs of electromagnets for operating said pairs of electromagnets, means for presetting said relay means selectively to operate preselected groups of pairs of electromagnets, a plurality of control members, means actuated by said control members selectively to operate the preselected groups of pairs of electromagnets to control the operation of said stop controls, and means for successively energizing said stop control electromagnets to produce a crescendo effect.
5. In an electric organ, a plurality of keys, a plurality of tone generators arranged in a plurality of stops, a plurality of stop controls arranged in a plurality of organ stops and interconnected with said tone generators for selectively rendering said tone generators effective to play in response to operation of said keys, a plurality of electromagnets operably connected to said stop controls for operating the same, means including a plurality of stop switches interconnected with said electromagnets for controlling the operation of said electromagnets, a plurality of pairs of electromagnets connected to said stop switches for controlling the operation of said stop switches in opposite directions, a plurality of relay means arranged in a plurality of organ stops and interconnected with said pairs of electromagnets for operating said pairs of electromagnets, means for presetting said relay means to operate a preselected group of pairs of electromagnets, a control member, means interconnecting said control member with a plurality of corresponding relay means in different tone stops for concurrently operating said relay means in response to movement of said control member concurrently to operate the stop controls in a plurality of stops, a plurality of additional switches interconnected with the electromagnets for operating said stop controls, and means for successively operating said additional switches for successively energizing said stop control electromagnets for producing a crescendo effect.
6. In an electric organ, a plurality of keys, a plurality of tone generators arranged in a plurality of stops, a plurality of stop controls arranged in a plurality of organ stops and interconnected with said tone generators for selectively rendering said tone generators effective to play in response to operation of said keys, a plurality of electromagnets operably connected to said stop controls for operating the same, means including a plurality of stop switches interconnected with said electromagnets for controlling the operation of said electromagnets, a plurality of pairs of electromagnets connected to said stop switches for controlling the operation of said stop switches in opposite directions a plurality of relay means arranged in a plurality of organ stops and interconnected with said pairs of electromagnets for operating said pairs of electromagnets, means for presetting said relay means to operate a preselected group of pairs of electromagnets, a control member, means interconnecting said control member with a plurality of corresponding relay means in dilierent tone stops for concurrently operating said relay means in response to movement of said control member concurrently to operate the stop controls in a plurality of stops, a pair of relays included in the means for presetting the relay means and the means for operating the stop control electromagnets, one of said relays being normally closed and the other of said relays being nor mally open, and means for simultaneously reversing the normal condition of said pair of relays.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,702,773 Hammond, Jr. Feb. 19, 1929 1,771,841 Buchheim July 29, 1930 1,956,350 Hammond Apr. 24, 1934 2,045,172 Youngblut June 23, 1936 2,104,338 Wick Jan. 4, 1938 2,127,266 Moorehouse et a1. Aug. 16, 1938 2,468,062 Hanert Apr. 26, 1949